Climate change threatens Indian agricultural growth

Climate change threatens Indian agricultural growth. BY PROF Ghulam Mohyuddin Wani FORMER PROFESSOR,DIRECTOR OF SK AGRIC UNIVERSITY,Kashmir, AND CHIEF CONSULTANT AH GOVT OF INDIA, 4 BISMILLAH COLONY, POST OFFICE, SANTNAGAR, SRINAGAR, 190005,India. Phones 09419389066 1. Abstract The poverty eradication, access to adequate food, clean water, and other resources seem difficult to be achieved in India under changing climate threats. The Delhi Ministerial Declaration on Climate Change and Sustainable Development, adopted at CoP-8 (the eighth session of the Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change), also affirmed this. The frequent floods, landslides, crop and animal disease epidemics result in loss of life and property. Global warming will lead to low precipitation. The rain-fed agriculture supports livelihood of a large population in India,thus climatic changes are bound to effect them. Methodology and data collection The first stage of the project involved the development of vulnerability profiles for Indian agriculture. Districts that are vulnerable to both climatic change and economic changes were identified. Data was gathered on social vulnerability (percentage of landless labourers in the agricultural workforce, literacy rates), infrastructure development, biophysical conditions (soil quality, groundwater availability), climate (Rainfall patterns, evapotranspiration patterns), agriculture (crops, productivity), and transportation (distance from ports). These were combined into vulnerability indices and mapped as vulnerability profiles The review of the results obtained by various working groups has been described. A brief conclusion is as 1.ARGRICULTURAL EXPORTS The agriculture and allied activities constitute 25 % of India’s gross domestic product. It provides employment to two-thirds of the total workforce. The share of Indian agricultural products is 15% of the total export earnings. 2. FOOD SECURITY TARGETS Wheat accounts for one-third of the total food grain production in India, while rice forms 43% of the total and is cultivated in43 mha (million hectares), which is about 30% of the net cultivated area. During the last decade, food grain production registered an annual compound growth rate of over 3% 3.NET SOWN AREA The net sown area will have to be increased to 145 mha and the cropping intensity to 145% by 2050 4.AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTIVITY Agricultural productivity is sensitive to two broad classes of climate-induced effects—(A) direct effects from changes in temperature, precipitation, or carbon dioxide concentrations, and (B) indirect effects through changes in soil moisture and the distribution and frequency of infestation by pests and diseases. 5.YIELD DECLINE The rice and wheat yields could decline considerably with climatic changes (IPCC 1996; 2001). However, the vulnerability of agricultural production to climate change depends not only on the physiological response of the affected plant, but also on the ability of the affected socio-economic systems of production to cope with changes in yield, as well as with changes in the frequency of droughts or floods. 6.ADAPTABLE FARMING The adaptability of farmers in India is severely restricted by the heavy reliance on natural factors and the lack of complementary inputs and systems.

PROF GHULAM MOHYUDDIN WANI .This is an introduction to the topic .one can read more in coming days.Pl send comments on


Water Conservation Tips

With the help of some tips from ENERGY STAR, we can more efficiently make use of the rooms in our home. No one enjoys wasting resources, but finding ways to save these resources isn’t always as easy as we’d like. So, here are some great ways to reduce unnecessary water usage and to increase your Connecticut home energy savings.

The Notorious Bathroom

Most people use the bathroom to take a load off – you can be as creative as you’d like with that phrase. The point is that the bathroom can provide some pretty great ways for relaxation– from taking baths and long warm showers, to reading and other pampering ideas.

Guess what that relaxing does? It causes an influx of energy depleting stress.

Did you know that the water used in the bathroom amounts to half the water used throughout the whole house!?

You can increase your CT home energy savings by following some guidelines:

Try to only run water when necessary whether washing your hands, brushing your teeth or taking a shower.

If possible, spend a little less time in the shower and don’t fill the tub unto overflowing!

Avoid flushing your toilet an excessive number of times.

The Kitchen & Laundry Room

We worry about wasting food when we’re in the kitchen, but we may not always consider the effects of our water usage. Think about all the ways we all overuse water in the kitchen.


Measure water and dump out the excess instead of using precision.
Grab a glass, fill it with water, take a sip and dump out the rest. Drink what you need!

Let the water run until it finally gets cool instead of keeping a jug of cool water in the refrigerator.

Allow the water to run while washing dishes or vegetables instead of filling the sink, scrubbing the plates and putting in dishwasher, or scrubbing the veggies.

Run water to defrost food instead of using a defroster or putting it in the refrigerator over night.

Fill a huge bucket with water and cleaner only to remember you have an appointment so you toss out the water.
Use the dishwasher before it’s full.

These things are easy to do and we’re all guilty– but the water conservation can be just as easy!
When it comes to the laundry room, we have to utilize one major principle: do not use unless full! You can use cool water when washing your clothes, and adhere to any instructions regarding load size.

Even More Savings

These tips can surely help conserve water usage and decrease your energy bill. Did you know you can magnify all these savings by having someone conduct a home energy audit of your house?! It’s true.

When an energy expert performs a home energy audit, he/she is actually identifying the areas in your home that are not performing to their highest energy efficiency capability. Not only can this expert point out areas for improvement, but he/she may also be able to perform the necessary repairs.

To learn more about your home’s energy efficiency or schedule a home energy audit, contact Dr. Energy Saver(TM) in Connecticut. They’ll identify ways to improve your home’s energy efficiency whether through water conservation in CT, window replacement, appliance repairs, and much more!

The Extent Of Agricultural Water-saving Potential?

Although the industrial water, city water and the prevalence of Rural Drinking Water saving space, but the press recently with the “water saving in China” Central News interview team learned in the interview, even if the wet areas and economically developed southern regions, the first water Agriculture is still big, but also the largest agricultural water saving potential.

According to Ministry of Water Resources Deputy Director of Rural Water Yuan-Hua Li, at present China’s agricultural water use accounts for about 64% of the total water consumption, water use efficiency is only about 45% effective. If the irrigation water use efficiency increased by 10% to 15% less irrigation water per year is about 60 billion to 80 billion cubic meters. Accelerate the water-saving agriculture, to ease the deteriorating situation of water resources in China hope for.

Yuan-Hua Li said, through the construction of water-saving irrigation, irrigation water use efficiency in China by the “Eighth Five-Year” at the end of less than 40% to 45% now. In irrigation water use does not increase the basic case, the effective irrigation area from 7.56 million mu in 1995 to develop 8.48 million mu in 2005. By water engineering measures, management measures and agricultural practices, and create more than 200 billion cubic meters of annual water-saving ability, to effectively alleviate the national water supply and demand.

“Although the proportion of agricultural water decreased in recent years, but agriculture still is the first major water users, more than 90% of agricultural water for irrigation, agricultural use of water resources directly related to national security.” Yuan-Hua Li analysts say, China surface irrigation accounts for about 98% of the total irrigated area, soil drainage for more than 95% of the country on a two-thirds of the irrigated area is very extensive irrigation methods, irrigation water use is low, is currently the main battlefield of our water is water The potential of.

Deputy Minister of Agriculture subsequently, An interview with reporters, said that at present drought areas of crops in China every year about 4 million hectares, 1.8 million hectares of inundated area, because of the drought losses of about 30 billion kilograms of grain. At the same time, due to inefficient water use, water in our average production of grain per cubic meter of 1 kg of grain per mu production per mm of precipitation is 0.5 kilograms, were only half the level in developed countries. Experts estimated that by promoting water-saving agricultural technology, irrigation water if the food production efficiency 0.1 kg per cubic meter, dry area of food production per mm of precipitation efficiency 0.1 kg per mu, can increase the production capacity of 50 billion kg of grain above, the equivalent of Henan Province, annual grain output in 2006.

An analysis of the DPRK crisis also said that if the rational use of existing water resources in the Sanjiang Plain can add production capacity of 17.5 billion kg of grain, northern Xinjiang, can add 10 billion kilograms, of Northeast West can add more than 3 billion kilograms. “Thus, to solve the efficient use of water resources for improving the overall grain production capacity, to ensure food security is of great significance.” He said.

According to Yuan-Hua Li introduced the “Eleventh Five-Year” period of China’s agricultural water conservation objectives are: total amount of irrigation water to maintain 360 billion cubic meters; new water-saving irrigation area of 1.59 million mu; additional 25 billion kg of grain production; form of agriculture water capacity of 20 billion cubic meters; irrigation water use efficiency increased from 45% to 50% of normal year by the 424 cubic meters per mu of irrigation water down to 410 cubic meters per mu per mu. Water user participation in irrigation management to achieve effective irrigation area of more than 25%.

To achieve this goal, the Ministry of Water Resources, “Eleventh Five-Year” period, the overall start since 1998, has not yet started a large-scale irrigation districts and water reform, the basic completion of 65 large-scale Irrigation District Water missions, basically completed 480 focus on medium-sized water-saving irrigation of the key projects the task of transformation; the same time, “Eleventh Five-Year Plan” period, start the water-scarce regions and major grain producing areas 1 to 5 mu mu medium-sized water-saving irrigation of Corollary transformation of 8 to 10 years to fully solve the serious water shortage on the local agricultural production conditions and living conditions of farmers constraints to accelerate local industrial restructuring in rural areas.

I am China Computer Parts writer, reports some information about pet baby turtles , tortoise toy.

Kids Stainless Steel Bottle offers you Hygienic Water Every Time

It’s a universal fact that the healthy drinking water is the essentially commodity of life. Water is so precious in many ways. It hydrates the internal body metabolism and flushes out deadly toxins from the body on order to clean the  digestive system. As the prominence healthy water has in our lives, the containers in which they are being stored also accommodate the same.  In the market there are diverse range of water bottles available that you may use to however you must rely on a stainless steel bottle or insulated stainless steel bottles. All these bottles have their own added advantages over others.

These insulated steel water bottles are not made up of Polycarbonates as these substance are high-performance plastic and in no way suitable for the bottles. Being free from the Polycarbonates simply means that using the stainless steel bottle or stainless steel sippy is noway dangerous for you and your family. It wont put your health at stake and you will have probably a healthy life till you are with these equipments. No option is so healthier as water stored in an insulated stainless water offers. Choosing a right water bottle is the first thing that you can do in order to prevent your body from unnecessary damages.

The thermos stainless steel bottles are reusable in nature thus extends lesser or no threat to the environment and expels less polluting particles in the environment. Contrary to its plastic counterparts, kids stainless bottles are less dangerous for the kids since plastic food containers induct molecules of chemicals into the food and beverages. These stainless steel bottles keep  the stored items like drinks fresh for hours However plastic bottles leave the drink and other items tasting and smelling of plastic substances. The nuisance  created by the plastic bottle is sometimes tough to cope bu the users.

Having a great recognition among the users, these stainless steel bottles are available in the very cost effective and affordable price tag. Thus if all you need to have good health and hygienic and mineral rich water together, insulated stainless steel water containers are probably the best solutions for all your water related needs. provides a complete line of Steel water bottles and Kids Stainless Steel Bottle for children. Find Filtered water bottles, Stainless Steel sippy and Filtered water bottles from our product ranges.

The Importance of Dental Health Care

There is a widespread problem of poor dental health that is still evident across the western developed world even today.  This problem persists in spite of the technology and dental hygiene equipment now available.  Read on for an explanation of the importance of practising good dental care.

Tooth decay is defined as being damage to the structure of the tooth affecting both the enamel outer finish on the tooth and what’s known as the dentin layer of the tooth.  The greatest cause of decay is the eating of foods that contain carbohydrates (that is various sugars and starches) found in breads, chocolate, breakfast cereals, milk products and desserts such as puddings or cakes. 

The problem with such foods is that bacteria living in the mouth will digest remnants of such foods and then turn them into acids.  These bacteria will combine with saliva and food residue to become plaque and stick to your teeth.  The danger of acids that exist in plaque is that they eat away the enamel of teeth which then leads to the creation of cavities also known as dental caries.

The best prevention method for stopping decay is: 

Brushing of your teeth (preferably with an electric toothbrush) for a minimum of 2 minutes after every meal while always using a fluoride toothpaste
Replace your toothbrush or electric brush-head every two to three months
Always use dental tape once a day before bedtimeFollow a nutritious diet of high quality balanced meals and avoid snacking during the day especially on carbohydrate-related foods that stick to the outer surface of teeth
Follow a nutritious diet of high quality balanced meals and avoid snacking during the day especially on carbohydrate-related foods that stick to the outer surface of teeth
Ask your dentist about whether you should be using a fluoride supplement such as a fluoride mouthwash
Make sure you drink fluoridated water rather than tank water or bottled water for dental protection
Avoid delaying visits to your dentist for important regular check-ups as regular scaling as well as examination for decay is essential.

Never ignore signs of dental problems such as toothache, swelling and pain around the gum, sore or inflamed gums, loose teeth, or dark spots on teeth that are likely to represent decay.  

You also need to realise that failure to look after your teeth is dangerous to your general health.  Chronic and prolonged decay can cause serious damage to bodily organs like your heart and kidneys if not treated.

In essence, you are what you eat in terms of overall physical health and this applies to your teeth as much as any other part of your physical being.




Value your teeth  as you would an arm or leg (remember your second set of teeth are your last) and always treat them with care.  Good dental care is worth the time, money and effort.  

I have a background in business as well as having worked for a boss in various employment from politics to the civil service.  I am currently involved in a consultancy where I advise on business start-ups in the renewable energy and building sectors.

The Different Uses Of A Mesh Tarp

There are more uses for a mesh tarp then there are variant colors of them. However, each color has specific uses that they are great for. It is important to see what works best for which application prior to purchasing one. Some of the uses for these kinds of things may seem pretty simple and straight forward, but for others it may come as a surprise how useful they can be.

Black ones can be used for shading. Though black may attract sunlight a black tarp can be used to form just the right amount of shade. It can even be the case that the sun is attracted to something that is not you.

Green mesh tarps can be used for camouflage. Their usefulness for this is often overlooked. Experienced outdoors-men and hunter known that green tarps don’t let animals know that you’re in their woods, and make hunting much easier. They can also be used for camping in the woods. Attaching one of these to a tree can make a great preplanned or even an emergency scenario shelter.

Tan is often used for the beach or a desert military environment. This helps the mesh device blend in with the environment. It is good not only for aesthetics, but for camouflage in military situations. Of course there are any number of applications for devices of this nature, but the ability to use them to help blend into an environment is a great benefit.

There are many uses for tarps. A mesh tarp may have many uses in your home or on your family vacation. This is why it is a good idea to consider the possibilities when it comes to using them. They are a great resource due to their relatively inexpensive nature. Purchasing them online can also save you a great deal of money, so there is no reason not to consider picking one up today.

Michael Stein is the president of Tarps Plus and is an expert on tarps and the tarp industry.

Functions Of Borescopes

They can be even connected to video cameras and fitted with specialized lenses so that professionally trained specialists can make very detailed observations. The device is an instrument that works like a microscope, telescope or camera.

It allows people to explore areas that are too small, too remote or out of reach. It has an eyepiece at the top attached to an insertion tube that can either be rigid or flexible.

When the borescope’s insertion tube is directed through an opening, it takes the lenses and the light source to what needs to be checked. On the other end of the tube there are two lenses, a light source, nozzles and other openings.

There are several different types of borescopes. When it has a flexible insertion tube, it is called an endoscope or a fiberscope.

These include the various endoscopes used for medical and veterinary procedures. Procedures include angioscopes for hearts, bronchoscopes for lungs, colonscopes for colons, otoscopes for ears, and gastroscopes for stomachs.

When a borescope has a rigid insertion tube, it is likely to be made from either a glass or stainless steel rod. In addition to the medical professions, the devices have many industrial applications.

Aircraft and auto mechanics use them to inspect the interiors of engines. Exterminators use borescopes to examine the tunnels, nests or hives of the pests they have to eradicate.

Plumbers, electricians and HVAC professionals all use borescopes to determine where to run their pipes and wires as well as to check for blockages or breaks. Locksmiths and law enforcement professionals routinely use the devices in their work.

The person who invented the rod lens endoscope was the British physicist Harold Horace Hopkins, who also invented the zoom lens. His work made it possible for surgeons to do less invasive procedures using “key hole” surgery.

Because the device makes it possible to see the internal organs, bones and muscles, a large incision can be avoided, which makes it easier and quicker for the patient to recover. In addition to standard borescopes, you can buy wireless ones.

You can also get the instruments that link to video cameras and computers. The most basic borescope is an optical device that has an eyepiece at one end and a mirror on the other, with the two being linked together by a relay system in order for someone to see an object.

The device essentially shows an image that is otherwise inaccessible to a person, and reflects that image into an eye. The devices are available in either flexible or rigid versions.

Rigid borescopes are designed for detailed interior work such as engine cylinders. They are usually accompanied by a device that magnifies the image, as well as a light.

Flexible instruments are often used in the medical industry to look into vascular parts or gastrointestinal areas. The medical industry refers to these instruments as endoscopes.

Flexible devices suffer from different pixelation issues. Due to the fact that the image must be repeatedly reflected along a wavy pathway, the image generally turns out fuzzy.

Borescopes are available in three types. These include Harold Hopkins versions, which feature fiber optics; gradient index versions for small detailed work; and the achromatic doublets version that brings two images into one.

An autoclavable endoscope is an endoscope that can be sterilized in an autoclave without sustaining damage to its delicate fiber optic components. Older endoscopes were not capable of surviving an autoclave and had to be either hand sterilized or were usable only once per patient.

Both types of endoscopes are still in use, those that are autoclavable and those that aren’t. Doctors use autoclaves to sterilize surgical equipment.

The autoclave subjects equipment and supplies to high pressure steam reaching temperatures of 121 degrees Celsius or more. Besides medical uses, veterinarians and microbiologists also use autoclaves for sterilization of equipment.

As well, someone getting body piercings might have them done with tools that have been sterilized in an autoclave. Autoclaves may be used to sterilize glassware, medical waste, utensils, animal cages, etc.

Medical autoclaves, the sort used on autoclavable endoscopes, operate using steam. The hot steam inactivates all bacteria, viruses, fungi and spores.

Tom Selwick has worked and researched in the engineering industry for the last 14 years. He has written many articles on his findings, especially on the topic of the borescope.

Contact Info:

Tom Selwick

NIR Interactance And The Human Body Analysis

Near infrared interactance is a process that has long been used in the food industry to measure the fat contents of meat. However, lately, it has become more and more popularly used to measure the content of the human body. But is near infrared interactance really that reliable for human body analysis?


In meat analysis, light absorption and reflection utilizing near infrared spectrometry is conducted to analyze the composition of the meat being examined in a near infrared interactance process. Infrared light at frequencies of 938nm and 948nm are emitted through the inner fat and muscle tissues. Fat absorbs the light; while lean meat reflects it. By comparing the ratio between absorbed light and reflected light, we can determine the volumes of both the fat and muscle tissues.


Then, with the use of a UV VIS NIR spectrophotometer, we can measure the direct transmissivity of the fats in the meat. Since a UV VIS NIR spectrophotometer is used to measure the radiometric properties of tra nsparent and opaque materials in the solar and in the long infra-red wavelength range, radiometric properties of can be measured and evaluated.


By measuring the transmisivity of the fats in the meat, we can determine if the water content of the meat and determine how fresh it is. The UV VIS NIR spectrophotometer, however, does not form part of the near infrared interactance process; but it may be used as a valid support to the use of a near infrared spectrometry machine in the near infrared interactance process.


Since the process of near infrared interactance is quick and non-evasive; and since UV VIS NIR spectrophotometers and near infrared spectrometry machines (used in the near infrared interactance process) are easy to use and understand, this may seem perfect for analyzing the fat and muscle content of the human body. However, near infrared interactance has proven to be quite unreliable with an error margin of about 5%. This is not a favorable error margin when examining human beings.


At this point in time, the process of near infrared interactance still has a long way to go before it can be used accurately on the human body.

If you’re interested,then visit and see how we can help you.

The Different Uses of 1 Inch Buttons

There are many uses for 1 inch buttons; they are a cool way to express yourself personally, such as a funny comment, or pretty picture, or even to show where you stand on certain issues. They are used for elections, charitable fundraisers, and they have also become an awesome inexpensive way to promote yourself or your business whatever its size.

People love free merchandise. At Trade Shows, buttons, pins, plush dolls, squish balls, and anything else is sought after from the people who are there. It is great to see people coming up to your booth to pick up your 1 inch buttons you had customized on them. They will wear them, show others, and promote your product.

Comic book artists have used them as a little something extra to add when they sell their comic books. Bands use them to give away at their concerts, and even small businesses use them as their calling card which is a great way to be constantly promoting themselves. Let’s face it, when somebody hands you their business card what do you do with it? Yup, you put it in your pocket, but a button you can wear on your hat, coat collar, heck I add mine to the shirt I’m wearing each day like jewelry, or flair as they call it in the movie “Office Space”.

With custom 1 inch buttons the possibilities are endless, we’ve done Business Logo buttons with the website address on them, World of Warcraft character buttons, Autism and Leukemia fundraiser buttons, comic book characters, School election buttons, I have even been able to take some of my daughters favorite characters and make her buttons that she puts on the strap of her book bag, and she says they are “Groovy”.

So whatever your reason, 1 inch pin back buttons are definitely the way to go!

For more details about 1 inch buttons and Band Buttons visit

Unusual Alternative Energy Sources

Nowadays, when fossil fuels have been exhausting, people tend to think about substitutions like nuclear, wind, water and geothermal power sources. Besides, there are some kinds of unusual alternative energies that both help create biogas and partly protect the environment.


Adult diapers

Adult diaper is a common product in many places, especially in Japan, where the average population is aging rapidly and the national output of used adult diapers has reached 5 billion marks. Therefore, the Super Faiths thinks that it is better if burning uses adult diapers as fuel than burying them. The garbage will be pulverized, sterilized and turned into large biomass boilers by SFD Recycle System.

The machines are designed to process large numbers of adult diapers


Smuggled alcohol

Svensk Biogas AB, the Swedish biogas company, is cooperating with the Scandinavian nation’s customs service to process 185,000 gallons of smuggled alcohol seized by the customs service last year into enough biogas to power over 1,000 buses and trucks, even a train. One quart of pure alcohol can produce about a tenth of a gallon of biogas.

This company which is located 125 miles southwest of Stockholm will heat the smuggled alcohol and convert it into biogas



Do you believe seawater can be used as an anti-cancer method and as a useful fuel? Researcher John Kanzius, who experienced a new cancer-fighting technique to destroy cancer-causing agents by radio waves, noted that his machine also broke the water molecules in the seawater into their component elements including hydrogen and oxygen.

With his generator’s assistance, the seawater may burn at a temperature of 3,000 degrees Fahrenheit and create a new fuel


Turkey Guts

One of more interesting ideas is that useless agricultural byproducts can be turned into clear and clean fuel oil. Turkey guts like grind poultry heads, feathers and innards after mixing with water and heating to 500 degrees Fahrenheit at 600 psi will be cooked for about an hour. During a little distillation, the garbage is now as good as black gold.

The Changing World Technologies can turn organic and carbon-based waste from computer parts to turkey guts into fuel oil through thermo-depolymerization.


Coffee grounds

Though coffee is among the most traded commodity on the planet, its production and preparation create a lot of waste, also called coffee grounds. Researchers at the University of Nevada’s Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering analyzed coffee grounds and discovered that they contain a significant percentage of oil in the form of biodiesel, even the natural anti-oxidants in the extracted coffee oil which help extend its shelf life.

Starbucks allegedly generates 210 million pounds of coffee grounds annually, which means that processing these grounds can provide nearly 3 million gallons of biodiesel and about 90,000 tons of fuel pellets

Do you really believe coffee grounds can produce new fuel?



Related links:

Characteristics Of New Energy

New Alternative Energy Sources

Extraordinary New Green Energy Innovations

I am 25 years old, and I study materials on education, likes reading and writing. In free time, I often join literature clubs and share my interest with others.